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[组图]自驾越野车驾驶技术         ★★★
自驾越野车驾驶技术
作者:佚名 文章来源:本站原创 点击数:9208 更新时间:2008/1/29 21:09:11

 

自驾越野车驾驶技术


陡坡:山区、水坝、铁路护坡
常见的4x4车爬坡极限通常在30度至35度左右,车身设计、分动箱齿轮、轮胎的抓地力、地面的干硬湿滑对爬坡都有影响。一般而言长轴距车不如短轴距车。在即将进入坡地之前即挂上4L。然后变速箱以1档起步。再进入2挡,保持一定的油门,使车辆保持定速的冲势,如此可以避免车轮打滑,湿滑的陡坡是难度最大的地形。一个4X4的驾驶者,让坡路上首先要求不倒滑后溜、不熄火,上大坡应注意一定要迎着坡上,切不可侧向行驶,一旦侧坡超过30度,车辆就可能发生侧翻滚,后果极其严重。如遇到上坡中途动力不足无法继续前进,可立即停住挂入倒档,利用发动机的牵引力,配合点刹,保持方向盘正直,慢慢退回到坡下。在狭窄的山路,方向盘的正确掌握是最为重要的。下坡虽不似上坡耗费马力,但操作不当也具危险性,通常驾驶者都明白不能持续踩刹车。在陡坡用分动箱4L是控制车速的极佳方法。遇上弯道应提前减速,避免空踩刹车,并辅以变速箱低速挡控制车速,若有必要应缓踩刹车。
泥泞:湿地、沼泽、水田、池塘
通常泥地用分动箱4H,变速篇2挡或3挡,使用固定的油门即可顺利通过。需要注意的是烂泥逾尺的沼泽地,车辆一旦不慎驶入,不论使用何种传动方式,车辆皆慢慢下沉。那时只有迅速求助外力协助拖离。在硬底的烂泥路上,使用分动箱4H或4L加油前进,虽紧握方向盘,车身仍略呈蛇行浮游,此种情况只要不偏离车道是没有关系的,惟需有心理上的准备。地基松软车轮微有下陷的泥地,分动箱用4L.全速箱用2挡,把稳方向盘缓缓加油前进即可通过。在软泥地的前进中,若发现一旁有地面下流情况,致车身倾斜又无法迅速通过时,通常是倒车后,在路沟上放置石块、木板等硬物,然后以分动箱4L固定油门前进。泥地的距离若非很短,保持一定速度的冲势是有必要的,在行进途中,若有小的横阻硬物,皆可直接碾过。坡地湿地往往使车辆打滑,加装防滑铁链可以改善部分情况,抓地罗强的轮胎,减少轮胎的气压亦有助力于改善。
沙地:沙漠、流动沙丘、海滩
驾驶4X4快速奔驰于广阔的沙滩,那种乘风前进的感觉,只有身临其中方能感受。车辆行驶沙地、车胎稍微下陷沙中,行驶略感吃力,但不致有困难。通常平坦的沙地,分动箱4H,变速箱2档或3挡都可畅行无阻。当前轮冲上沙丘以后,车又抬起重心即落于后轮,此时后轮需左右平均着地才可顺利通过。此则若是车身左右倾斜或是重量不平均,在车身前后倾斜的情况下,无论是分动箱4H或4L,皆会形成车轮原地空转喷沙现象。此种情况若继续踩油门,依然还是四轮原地空转。可能还会愈陷愈深。此时使用绞盘机或是友车协助拖离是可行的方法,若要自力克服,只有下车将陷入较深的两个车轮底下的沙挖去,并以木板、石块等硬物放置于车轮底下,分动箱4L,变速箱1挡,使车轮转动时摩擦硬物前进。从理论上讲,4X4是不会陷在平坦沙地的。
但有一种情况例外,当4x4以两轮传动时进入沙地,继续保持前进不换档也许就不会陷在沙地,一旦停车以后再开动时,若是未注意仍用两轮传动,猛加两次油门,则会使转动的两轮陷一大半在沙中,此时当然非用分动箱4L不可了,在沙中的两轮若陷的不深则有机会爬起,陷的深则连其他两轮也会愈转就陷得愈深。在沙地若有3个车轮陷入沙中,深度超过车轮直径40%以上时,仅靠车辆动力爬出的机会几乎是零,此时也是使用车轮底下垫硬物摩擦前进的方法来脱困,再就是求助外力了。
涉水:江河、溪流、水库、湖泊的淡水区
4x4车由于电器系统与进气排气位置较高,而有较佳的涉水能力,一般的4X4越野车涉水能力约与轮胎高度相等,涉水行驶前探查了解水深,除了河床底部凹凸不平不易掌握外,积水的道路其街头街尾的水深差别有时极大,需注意年检不可太快,激起水花溅湿电路而熄火是常有的情况。当水深可能淹没排气管时,分动箱用4L,变速箱用2挡或1挡,稳住油门使发动机保持较高转速,避免水中换档,以此方法司使排气压力大于水压不敷进水,涉水深度可达排气管口以上20厘米。
冰雪路:冬季道路、高寒山区
在积雪达轮胎高度一半以上时前进阻力极大,此时分动箱使用4L。在积雪的平坦地面行车,特别要弄清楚雪下的地形,勿使车轮陷入大的坑洞和路沟。在积雪的土坡路或下坡路,以4L控制车速是必要的,尤其是弯道坡路,更是要小心,应提前减速,缓踩刹车。在坡度15度以上的积雪弯道行车,分动箱用4L,变速箱用1挡,尽量使车速降至最低,此种地形危附件很高,若非必要还是避免行驶。

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