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[组图]气候变化的危险及其应付措施         ★★★
气候变化的危险及其应付措施
作者:佚名 文章来源:本站原创 点击数:9451 更新时间:2008/1/29 21:08:05

 

尽管预测野外天气非常困难,亦不可听其自然。无论天气变化或气象现象,均有其一定的科学规律可循。为了享受快乐的野外活动,避免危险,以确保安全,应在有关天气方面,留意吸取某种程度的知识。倘能把握野外天气的原则,即使陷入天气急剧变化造成的紧急事态,亦不至于犯下严重过失。然而,要想一次即理解和知道一切有关天气之事乃是不可能的事,平常就应多加研究野外的天气,同时在进入野外之后,应实际运用自己的双眼观察云雾变化等,努力了解野外天气,以达到如同看地图即知地形相类似的纯熟境界。


  1. 对恶劣气候应有的准备与认识


  如前所述,从事野外活动者,平常即应学习天气方面的知识,以便了解野外天气的特征、以及天气为何产生变化等。从而,学会在实际活动时必备且必能有所助益的观测天气,以及天气图的绘制、判识方法。   
  所谓观测天气,乃是根据对星星、太阳、月亮的光度或云层形状、动向等情况的观察,设法预测未来天气的一种方法。此乃自古以来,野外工作如渔夫野樵等在自然环境下工作之人,从经验中实际体会而获得的天气预测方法,其中也有不少有着充分的科学根据。   
  气象学者之中,有些人单凭云的形状、动向,即可充分预测次日的天气。野外气象学的入门第一步,即是眺望天空、眺望云。观天望气对于预测天气有莫大助益,详情请参考有关的专门书籍。
  其次,如果可能,应学会正确绘制无线电气象观测的天气图。最近,由于观测仪器的研究发展,已能获得相当正确、丰富的气象资料。在每天固定的时间所播放气象报告中,均将天气图与全国气象状况向大众播报。最近,高气层天气图也广泛地受到采用。
  一般人往往认为绘制天气图很困难,其实一旦实际着手,就发现简单之至。不妨购买天气图用纸,先行练习绘制天气图。倘学会观天望景,则在野外,当可更有效地运用天气图。
  那么,为应付恶劣天气,出发前应先准备的物品是:首先,绝对不能缺少获知天气的收音机与天气图用纸。收音机要以小型、重量轻、且能收听短波广播的产品为佳。如此方能收听凌晨的气象报告。同时,亦不可忘记带备用干电池。
  此外,应假设遭遇恶劣气候的状况,准备充分的装备、食物,携带雨具,防风夹克、毛衣、手套等这是不待赘言的,为了避免备用衬衫、裤子等淋湿,亦应将其装入塑胶袋内带去。倘有宽余,亦不妨携带帐篷前往,则遇紧急状况时,当可派上用场。食物方面,个人均应注意随身携带干粮。并以易于下咽、易消化与热量高等特性为主要选择标准,一吃下去立即转化为热量的食物尤佳,譬如:羊羹、炼乳、巧克力等。 

 
  2. 遇恶劣气候时,首应作何处置


  遭遇恶劣气候的场合,必须尽快采取对策,由于野外天气变化无常,故为了避免湿透的身体受强风吹袭等,应在天气恶化前,先穿上雨衣等采取预防措施。如果预测天气可能相当恶劣,亦不妨先穿上衬裤。预备替换的衣物必须收藏妥当,并再度检查,避免弄湿,如若不然,一旦遇上天气恶化之后,再做准备的话,可能已经太迟了,因为一旦全身上下全部都湿透时,不仅体力消耗已不可避免,从而加大了换衣服的难度,而且,在狂风大雪之中更换衣物,难上加难到几乎不可能的事。
  在野外天气尚未恶化之前,亦应先行进食。因为在恶劣天气中,既无充分时间可慢慢进食,且也可能很长时间无法吃到东西。
  有关全队的行动方面,应先确认预定的行程。确认路线有无变更、次一站的休息地点、露营区的位置等。还有,各个队员的状况如何、有无落队者、行李分配是否可维持原样并毋须调整等,亦应加以检讨。而最重要的是,全体采取一致的行动。在恶劣天气之中,队伍很容易离散,以致难以指挥;因此,有时会造成非常危险的状况。  
  

3. 在恶劣气候下,继续行动的条件


  此应视天气的恶劣程度与全队拥有的能力是否足以应付,再作决定。假使各个队员仍能支撑到目的地,且并非是无法行动的恶劣天气、而且应付恶劣天气的装备亦很充足的话,则不妨按原定计划行动。
  但是,必须了解恶劣气候可能带来的种种影响,岩壁受潮后很容易滑落、又因视线不佳很难辨清路线等,都可能导致行动时间表难以控制。而且,各个队员所感觉到的疲劳,此时也会比平常更显强烈,故应仔细考虑上述状况之后,再采取行动。行动中,领队应确实掌握指挥权,发挥协调合作的精神,向目的地勇敢前进。
  队员之中即使有一人的状况欠佳,亦应顾虑该人的情况而采取配合其步调之行动。倘减轻其行李负荷,可与其他队员一致地行动,则指派他人给予协助。或者暂时休息以等候天气转佳亦可。总之,不可勉强行动。因为在恶劣天气之中勉强行动,往往会造成灾难性的后果。 

 
  4. 如何判断是否该决定露营


  在相当恶劣的天气里,全队均无余力可继续行动的场合,应考虑露营。遭恶劣天气侵袭之后,临时决定露宿,不但找寻场所困难,在准备工作上亦非常吃力;因此,务必在发觉天气恶化之前,尽快下达露宿的决定。有关露宿的方法前已有述,只有尽可能避免采取露宿为宜。相形之下,尽快进入在附近的民居之类,较为安全可靠。
    以上已叙述有关遭遇恶劣天气的心理准备与建议,但最重要的还是拟订周详的计划。诚如前章所述,应付天气变化的机动,亦应先列入计划的日程之中。那么一来,万一遭遇恶劣天气之时,则不用勉强行动,只要躺在帐篷或小屋内,静候天气转晴即可。当然,从事野外活动的工薪阶级人士由于日程不充裕,往往贸然采取行动,结果很可能就遭遇危险。因此,与其在报章上出现并成为新闻,何不事后补假一天呢?珍惜生命永远是正确的。 

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